Before the contracts expire at the end of 2026, they have to be renegotiated. To prevent the British from making inappropriate demands, it was agreed that the European Union could take punitive action in this case.
The British adhere to the EU standard
In the other area where talks have stalled lately, the level playing field, it was agreed that the British would uphold European standards. Businesses shouldn’t get full support from the government in London, and if state aid is suspected, the books should be on the table for the EU to control.
If there are differences of opinion, the European Court of Justice will no longer examine the case, but a separate court. Both the European Union and the United Kingdom have declared that they will respect what this new institution is saying.
The British also follow European rules for the environment and work. For example, it was agreed that the UK would respect all of the Paris Climate Agreement.
Controls at the border
There will be customs formalities, as they are called in Brussels. Food, animals and plants are checked. And there is no longer any free movement of people. Students will not be able to study in the UK for a few months under the Erasmus program. However, the British will continue to participate in the Horizon science program.
The trucks can keep going if they have the right papers with them. The British are even allowed to move a limited amount of cargo between EU countries, known as cabotage. This is limited to a maximum of two trips.
It was also agreed that no trade quotes would be returned. The UK can therefore export just as much to the European Union (and vice versa) as it currently does. The British have promised to meet EU food safety standards.
Investment and security
The agreement also includes agreements on future investments. British companies are allowed to apply for European contracts and are not pre-disadvantaged.
Arrangements have also been made to inform each other about security issues. Not only the greatest threats, but also police cooperation. There is a separate section on nuclear energy that solemnly promises not to adhere to safety requirements.